Surrogacy is an arrangement between an infertile couple and a woman who agrees to get pregnant through ART and where the embryo implanted in the women is usually processed from the gametes of the infertile couple. This pregnancy is then continued and child is delivered and handed over to the couple to whom she has agreed to become a surrogate.
Types of Surrogacy
There are two types of surrogacy:
Commercial Surrogates – The women are paid extra for carrying a child in her womb till delivery.
Altruistic Surrogate -Such women are not paid for this pregnancy apart from the above expenses.
In practice all the expenses during pregnancy of the surrogate mother such as medical expenses and other expenses during birth are paid by the infertile couple who have asked for the surrogacy.
Who are Offered Surrogacy?
- The female partner has absent uterus (Congenital or acquired after operation)
- Abnormalities of uterus shape, size, post surgery scar or pathology of placenta
- Repeated IVF failure
- Severe medical disorders where pregnancy may threaten life of the women- uncontrolled & severe diabetes, hypertension, severe cardiac disease, kidney disorders etc.
What are the Steps of Surrogacy?
- The first step is investigating the infertile couple for capability of donation for sperms and eggs
- Simultaneous selection and counselling of the surrogate mother
- Next is stimulation, extraction of eggs from the donor followed by fertilization and then culture in lab
- This is followed by transfer of the fertilized egg to the uterus of the surrogate mother.
What are the New Rules of Surrogacy in India?
Indian government has recently proposed a Surrogacy Bill in which it has banned commercial surrogacy and mainly foreigners cannot use Indian surrogate mothers. It has legalized surrogacy only for infertile heterosexual married Indian couples who are married for more than 5 years. Secondly, a close relative of the infertile couple can approached for surrogacy while commercial surrogate mother is not allowed.